10 Most Important Events in Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt has fascinated historians and archeologists for centuries. Many pharaohs were great military commanders and architectural pioneers.

People have been intrigued by its strange customs, grandiose temples, and mysterious pyramids for centuries.

Over time, events occurred that continued to build on the prestige and grandeur of ancient Egypt. This article will take a look at 10 of the most important events in Ancient Egypt.

1. Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt 

Upper and Lower Egypt were originally two separate kingdoms. The kingdom of Upper Egypt was located in the south, while the kingdom of Lower Egypt was located in the north. Around 3100 BC, the two kingdoms were unified under the rule of King Menes.

The unification of the two kingdoms was significant because it signaled the start of the 1st dynasty. Menes, also known as Narmer, helped to organize Egypt into an organized society which eventually led to great achievements. 

Egypt would eventually split again, but this initial unification helped usher in the dynastic period of ancient Egyptian civilization. 

2. Construction of the Pyramids of Giza Complex 

Located on the Giza plateau, the Great Pyramids of Giza are perhaps the most famous of all the ancient Egyptian monuments. They were built over 4,500 years ago and are still an awe-inspiring sight today. Part of the Giza complex, the three main pyramids were built for the pharaohs Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure. 

The Great Pyramid of Giza is the tomb of the Pharoah Khufu. Constructed over the course of more than 20 years, this pyramid is the largest pyramid built.  

The Great Pyramids are also surrounded by a complex of smaller pyramids, temples, and tombs. This includes the Sphinx, a lion-headed statue standing guard at the pyramid complex’s entrance. In addition, many of the pharaohs’ queens have tombs in the pyramid complex. 

The Great Pyramids of Giza are magnificent feats of engineering. Their construction, especially that of King Khufu’s tomb, is one of the most important events in Egyptian history. 

3. Conquest of Nubia

The conquest of Nubia was one of the most important events in ancient Egypt. Nubia was a land located to the south of Egypt. It was rich in natural resources, such as gold and ivory.

The Egyptians began their conquest of Nubia in about 1500 BCE. They built forts along the Nile River to control trade and protect their borders. The Egyptians also sent armies to conquer Nubian cities. They did this by building walls around the city and then attacking it from all sides.

The conquest of Nubia allowed the Egyptians to control the trade routes between Egypt and Africa. This made them very wealthy. The Egyptians also gained access to a lot of valuable resources, such as gold and ivory.

The conquest of Nubia was a very important event in ancient Egyptian history. It allowed the Egyptians to become one of the most powerful empires in the world.

4. Building of the Temple of Karnak

The Temple of Karnak was built in 1400 BC and is the largest temple complex in Egypt. It is located in Luxor, Egypt. During Ancient Egypt’s peak, the Temple of Karnak was likely the largest religious building in the world. 

In fact, it is so large that its continued construction took place for at least 1,000 years.

Although historians debate over how long the complex took to develop, it is agreed that it spanned multiple periods in Egyptian history. 

5. Hatshepsut Became Pharoah

One of the most important events in ancient Egypt was when Hatshepsut became pharaoh around 1478 BCE.

Hatshepsut was one of the first female pharaohs in Egypt and is largely considered to be the first as powerful as she was. She was a very successful ruler as she is credited with bringing great prosperity to Egypt.

Hatshepsut was a very strong and capable leader, and she was respected by her people. She was a great builder, and she oversaw the construction of many temples and monuments. She also sent Egyptian traders on expeditions to other countries, which helped to bring wealth and resources back to Egypt.

Hatshepsut was a very important figure in ancient Egyptian history, and her reign was a time of great prosperity for the country. She ensured that a successful and peaceful transition of power occurred as she served as regent for Thutmose III.

Without her reign, ancient Egyptian history could have had a very different outcome. 

6. The Battle of Qadesh

The Battle of Qadesh was fought between the Egyptians and the Hittites in 1274 BCE. The Egyptians were led by Pharaoh Ramses II, while the Hittites were led by King Muwatalli II.

The Battle of Qadesh was a very important event in ancient Egyptian history. It was the last major battle between the Egyptians and the Hittites.

The Egyptians were victorious, and this victory helped to secure their control over Syria and Palestine. This battle also helped to solidify Ramses II’s position as one of the most powerful rulers in the ancient world.

7. Ending of the Old Kingdom Period

Around 2200 BCE, the Old Kingdom period came to an end. Historians believe that this was caused by a number of factors, including a long period of drought and civil unrest. The end of the Old Kingdom period was a time of great upheaval in ancient Egypt.

During the Old Kingdom period, the Pharaohs had absolute power. They were considered to be gods on earth. However, during the First Intermediate Period, this changed. The Pharaohs lost control of much of Egypt, and regional rulers became more powerful.

The First Intermediate Period was a time of great turmoil. There was a lot of fighting between different regions of Egypt. Eventually, the Middle Kingdom period began. This was a time of stability and prosperity.

The Old Kingdom Period was important to ancient Egyptian society as it began the period of dynastic rule. Although Egypt would experience various Intermediate Periods of a fragmented Egyptian culture, the Middle and New Kingdom Periods would see subsequent reunification and prosperity. 

8. Start of the Middle Kingdom

The middle kingdom lasted from 2055 BCE to 1650 BCE. The founding of the Middle Kingdom was important because it was a period of the reunification of Upper and Lower Egypt.

Egypt regained its spot as a major power in the region, and its influence spread far and wide.

The Middle Kingdom was also a time of great achievement for the Egyptian people. They developed new methods of irrigation and agriculture, and they built some of the most impressive monuments and temples in all of Egypt.

The Middle Kingdom was a Golden Age for Egypt, and its legacy is still evident today.

9. Start of the New Kingdom Period

The New Kingdom Period lasted from 1550 BCE to 1070 BCE. The New Kingdom period is the period associated with Moses and the Bible. 

During this period, Egyptian society saw a greater emphasis placed on the power of the priests. Famous texts, such as the Book of the Dead, came from this period.

This is also when Egypt became a monotheistic society under the reign of Akhenaten, although the society reverted to polytheism following his death. 

The Valley of the Kings became the resting place of Pharaohs during this time. This period was one of great wealth from both the Nubian region as well as trade routes throughout the Mediterranean. The wealth was reflected in the extravagant tombs in the Valley of the Kings. 

10. Alexander the Great Conquered Egypt

One of the most important events in ancient Egypt was the conquest of the country by Alexander the Great. This event took place in 332 BCE and had a profound impact on the country. 

After Alexander conquered Egypt, he made it part of his vast empire. This had a number of consequences for the country. First, it opened up Egypt to trade with other parts of the world. Second, it brought Greek culture to Egypt. This can be seen in the architecture of many Egyptian buildings, which were built in the Greek style. Third, it resulted in a period of stability and prosperity for Egypt.

The conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great was a turning point in the country’s history. It had far-reaching consequences that led to a period of prosperity and cultural exchange.

10. Persians Conquered Egypt

The Persian conquest of Egypt in 525 BCE was another important event in ancient Egyptian history. The Persians defeated the Egyptians in a series of battles and took control of the country. This event marked the end of the Egyptian empire and ushered in a new era of Persian rule.

The Persian conquest had a profound impact on Egyptian society. It brought about changes in government, religion, and culture.

The Persians introduced new gods and goddesses to the Egyptians, and they imposed their own laws and customs on the country. The Persian conquest was a turning point in Egyptian history that led to lasting changes in the country.


Much like ancient China, the history of ancient Egypt is one of fragmentation and unification. Many of the important events that occurred in ancient Egypt were the result of leaders either unifying the civilization or attempting to prevent it from falling apart. 

During the Kingdom Periods, Egypt often saw periods of great prosperity and culture building. Much of what we think of when we think of ancient Egypt, such as the building of the Pyramids of Giza, the Valley of the Kings, or the rule of Hatshepsut, occurred during the Kingdom Periods. 

Eventually, ancient Egypt would be conquered by the Greeks and the Persians and would see new dynastic periods. This fusion of cultures produced another lens to view ancient Egyptian history through.

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